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Disease Prevention Rutin Cures Cancer:


Gnomebe
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Targeting Multiple Signaling Pathways in Cancer: The Rutin Therapeutic Approach

1
Student Research Committee, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6714415153, Iran
2
Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6734667149, Iran
3
Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8174673461, Iran
4
Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, Bradenton, FL 34211, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(8), 2276; 

DOI.ORG "https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12082276"
Cancers | Free Full-Text | Targeting Multiple Signaling Pathways in Cancer: The Rutin Therapeutic Approach
Multiple dysregulated signaling pathways are implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer. The conventional therapies used in cancer prevention/treatment suffer from low efficacy, considerable toxicity, and high cost. Hence, the discovery and development of novel multi-targeted agents to attenuate the dysregulated signaling in cancer is of great importance. In recent decades, phytochemicals from dietary and medicinal plants have been successfully introduced as alternative anticancer agents due to their ability to modulate numerous oncogenic and oncosuppressive signaling pathways. Rutin (also known as rutoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and sophorin) is an active plant-derived flavonoid that is widely distributed in various vegetables, fruits, and medicinal plants, including asparagus, buckwheat, apricots, apples, cherries, grapes, grapefruit, plums, oranges, and tea. Rutin has been shown to target various inflammatory, apoptotic, autophagic, and angiogenic signaling mediators, including nuclear factor-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins, light chain 3/Beclin, B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein, caspases, and vascular endothelial growth factor. A comprehensive and critical analysis of the anticancer potential of rutin and associated molecular targets amongst various cancer types has not been performed previously. Accordingly, the purpose of this review is to present an up-to-date and critical evaluation of multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms through which the anticancer effects of rutin are known to be exerted. The current challenges and limitations as well as future directions of research are also discussed.

Received: 6 July 2020 / Revised: 7 August 2020 / Accepted: 10 August 2020 / Published: 14 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Their Active Ingredients in Cancer)
Multiple dysregulated signaling pathways are implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer. The conventional therapies used in cancer prevention/treatment suffer from low efficacy, considerable toxicity, and high cost. Hence, the discovery and development of novel multi-targeted agents to attenuate the dysregulated signaling in cancer is of great importance. In recent decades, phytochemicals from dietary and medicinal plants have been successfully introduced as alternative anticancer agents due to their ability to modulate numerous oncogenic and oncosuppressive signaling pathways. Rutin (also known as rutoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and sophorin) is an active plant-derived flavonoid that is widely distributed in various vegetables, fruits, and medicinal plants, including asparagus, buckwheat, apricots, apples, cherries, grapes, grapefruit, plums, oranges, and tea. Rutin has been shown to target various inflammatory, apoptotic, autophagic, and angiogenic signaling mediators, including nuclear factor-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins, light chain 3/Beclin, B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein, caspases, and vascular endothelial growth factor. A comprehensive and critical analysis of the anticancer potential of rutin and associated molecular targets amongst various cancer types has not been performed previously. Accordingly, the purpose of this review is to present an up-to-date and critical evaluation of multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms through which the anticancer effects of rutin are known to be exerted. The current challenges and limitations as well as future directions of research are also discussed. View Full-Text

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