In the last several years, numerous molecules derived from plants and vegetables have been tested for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aging properties. One of them is sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate present in cruciferous vegetables. SFN activates the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses by inducing Nrf2 pathway and inhibiting NF-κB. It also has an epigenetic effect by inhibiting HDAC and DNA methyltransferases and modifies mitochondrial dynamics. Moreover, SFN preserves proteome homeostasis (proteostasis) by activating the proteasome, which has been shown to lead to increased cellular lifespan and prevent neurodegeneration. In this review, we describe some of the molecular and physical characteristics of SFN, its mechanisms of action, and the effects that SFN treatment induces in order to discuss its relevance as a “miraculous” drug to prevent aging and neurodegeneration.